This study came about as a result of experimental computer simulations of Coulomb forces and interactions between protons and electrons in hydrogen atoms as well as between quarks in protons and neutrons. The gravity simulations showed a weak but consistent and robust attraction between particles with zero external charge irrespective of simulation parameters imposed on the particles.
Entanglement, strong force, gravity and magnetism are caused by subatomic attraction between charges and/or dipoles. As such it is part of quantum physics even if the underlying mechanism can be described in context of Coulomb forces in easy to understand classical physics shown below.
Action at a distance can be used to describe entanglement, gravity and magnetism. They are all the result of Coulomb forces between charged particles and/or dipoles. The main difference is the strength of the EM Coulomb link between them. While gravity and magnetism are caused by a Coulomb force between dipoles in neutral particles, entanglement is caused by the full Coulomb force between charged particles. Consequently the Coulomb force link between two entangled particles is 1/(9*10^-19) = 1.111*10^18 times stronger than gravity. Take for example the case of two electrons from the same atom and thereby entangled by having become synchronized. Even when separated by a long distance, observations suggest that if we disturb one to change for example its spin direction, so does the other one though it is seemingly undisturbed and far away except for its strong Coulomb entanglement with its partner particle.
Strong force is the result of multiple competing Coulomb charge force vectors. These forces are both attracting and repelling and the distance between participating charges determine the strength of individual force vectors specific to each pair of interacting charges, and to the resultant force. At the minimum distance attracting forces dominate resulting in an attracting strong force. However, at a slight increase in the distance between the quarks involved the composite attracting force goes to zero and the repelling force of same sign charges take over to produce an explosive repelling force associated with nuclear decay and often called weak force. See details below.
Coulomb forces between two hydrogen atoms are both attracting and repelling. The separately computed individual forces are large but essentially cancel each other except for resulting in a weak, attracting compound force.
It was concluded that because of the electrostatic elasticity between protons and electron orbitals in atoms, the strong Coulomb forces result in small shifts in the location of the charges, in turn resulting in the polarization, the directional alignment, the elongation and the weak, attracting compound force seen in the simulations.
As a consequence of the Coulomb forces, attracting charges pull together, slightly reducing their distance and increasing the force between them, while repelling charges push apart, slightly increasing their distance and reducing the force between them. Based on Coulomb's law the result becomes a slight advantage to the sum of attracting forces over the sum of repelling forces, such that the resulting force balance always yields a small, attracting net force between the atoms.
The mechanism mimics that known as Van der Waals forces and is based on the difference between attracting and repelling Coulomb forces between particles and bodies, but in the case of gravity at a longer distance. It is concluded that because of the movement of the elctrons involved, the overall mechanism also incorporates some of the electromagnetic aspects of Lorentz forces explaining the EM communication of gravity through space.
The simulations presented below are performed in physically correct simulation software. The simulations shown use simple, electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not attempt to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond Coulomb forces between particles and bodies. See details below.
Magnetism has long been treated as a separate discipline of physics without a clear connection to other fundamental forces. However, the fundamental force causing magnetism is a Coulomb force between electric dipoles similar to the net Coulomb force causing gravity.
Magnetism occurs when the orbital planes of electrons in a permanent magnet are arranged in parallel, or when a current of electrons is passed through coils arranged as parallel loops of a conductor.
When a ferromagnetic material is exposed to a magnetic field, the electron orbital planes in the exposed material also become temporarily or permanently reoriented in parallel. Because of the parallelism of the orbital planes in both magnets the atoms become dipoles parallel to the magnet axis with a distinct positive end consisting of the proton and a distinct negative end consisting of the electron orbital.
In the case of gravity the electron orbital planes are not free to become parallel. Electric dipoles in gravity consist primarily of a slight eccentricity of the electron orbitals relative to the protons creating a weak net Coulomb force between the two objects.
The root cause of entanglement, strong force, gravity and magnetism is in all cases net Coulomb force between electric charges and dipoles.
Links to Hydrogen gravity simulations
Charge posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms:
The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.
Mathematical evidence of unconditional net Coulomb attraction
Figure 1. Conceptual example of conditional polarization according to Coulomb's law:
Attraction = ke* q^2* (/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2)
= ke* q^2* (1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1)
= ke* q^2* (1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)
= ke* q^2* (0.06101418)
= ke* 0.061q^2
As can be seen in the result above, the Coulomb interaction between two atoms always yields a small, positive attracting force between the atoms.
Calculation of dipole offset distance X between positive and negative charges in one of the atoms when 1*10^-10 meter apart above.
e = 1.60217662*10^-19
r = 10^-10
K = 8.98755178787*10^9
e = 1.60217662*10^-19
R = 5.291772*10^-11
K*e^2 (1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - K*e^2 (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0
K*e^2 [(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2)] = 0
(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0
(1/(10^-10-x)^2 + 1/(10^-10+x)^2 - (2/10^-18) - (1/(5.291772*10^-11-x)^2 - 1/(5.291772*10^-11+x)^2)= 0
Answer: Dipole offset distance above: X = 7.1789*10^-12 meter
(Check: External Coulomb force = 1.86963*10^-44 Newton)
(Internal Coulomb reaction force = 1.86962*10^-44 Newton)
Coulomb dipole gravity between the two atoms = 1.8696*10^-44 Newton
Calculation of Newton gravity between two hydrogen atoms 1*10^-10 meter apart.
F = G*(m1*m2)/r^2
F = 6.674*10^-11(1.67 x 10^-27)^2/(1*10^-10)^2
F = 1.86131*10^-44 Newton
Gravity between two hydrogen atoms according to Newton and the gravitational constant = 1.8613*10^-44 N.
Consequently, known gravity correlates very well to net Coulomb attraction = 1.8696*10^-44 N.
This explanation for the cause of gravity is very convincing. However, more detailed and accurate simulations and calculations should be performed by third parties interested in the scientific cause of gravity as well as to establish a theoretical determination of the gravitational constant.
Coulomb dipole gravity, dipole elongation and the atomic clock
An atomic clock runs 30 microseconds per day slower on earth than it does in GPS satellite orbit. This corresponds to a relative error of 3.472*10^-10.
A Hydrogen atomic clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency medium. In gravity free space a hydrogen atom is externally neutral while the electron orbit is centered around the proton. In earth gravity a hydrogen atom is slightly elongated into a dipole where the center of the electron orbit is offset from the center of charge of the proton. This slows the frequency of the electron orbit. Knowing the Coulomb attraction force between proton and electron in a hydrogen atom, as well as the Coulomb dipole gravity between the hydrogen atom and earth we can calculate the expected orbital disturbance and associated orbital frequency reduction of the electron in the hydrogen atom while in earth gravity.
1. Hydrogen atom centering force:
This is the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom according to Coulombs law.
F1 = K(e*e)/r^2
K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2
e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs
r = Bohr's radius = 5.29×10^-11 m
F1 = 4.357*10^20 N
2. Dipole gravity distraction force:
This calculates the net dipole elongation force acting on the hydrogen atom.
F2 = K(n*e*e)/L^2
K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2
e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs
n = The dipole mass of earth divided by the dipole mass of one proton = (5.972*10^24) / (1.673*10^-27)
L = The distance between the hydrogen atom and the integrated center of effort of the dipole mass in earth, which is is at the center of the earth = the radius of the earth = 6378*10^3 m
F2 = 1.468*10^11 N
Assuming a linear relationship between relative dipole elongation force and relative hydrogen clock frequency, the error in clock frequency at the surface of the earth caused by Coulomb dipole gravity should be:
F2 / F1 = (1.468*10^11)/(4.357*10^20) = 3.369*10^-10
The atomic clock error to be expected at ground level, calculated using the effects of Coulomb polarization corresponds within 0.103*10^-10 to observed values. The difference in the last decimal is most likely the result of approximating the electron orbital as circular when in reality it is slightly elliptical.
A hydrogen atom unaffected by external influences is centered to where the center of the electron orbital coincides with the center of charge of the proton. The compound charge of this atom = 0. However, when in the proximity of other charges, including other atoms, an atom becomes polarized to where the center of the electron orbital does not coincide with the center of charge of the proton. A polarized atom acts as a dipole with a very low effective positive charge at one end and the corresponding negative charge at the other end.
Calculating the effective dipole charge (e) of two hydrogen dipoles under Coulomb electric gravity:
K*e^2/r^2 = G*m^2/r^2
K = 8.98755178787*10^9
G = 6.674*10^-11
m = 1.6737236*10^-27
e^2 = G*m^2/K = 6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2
e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2]/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*2.80127169*10^-54)]/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = 18.69567598*10^-65/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = 2.080*10^-74
e = 1.442*10^-37 Coulomb
Compare this to the charge of the proton (or electron):
As can be seen from the above, the effective charge of a hydrogen atom dipole is in this case a minuscule portion of the charge of any of the two constituents, the proton and the electron:
1.442*10^-37 Coulomb / 1.60217662*10^-19 Coulomb = 9.000*10^-19 of the charge of a proton.
The effective charge and the subsequent force of gravity are consequently very weak compared to the charges and forces at work in for example strong force.
Deuterium binding energy
As a third method to quantify the expected consequences of Coulomb polarization, computer simulations were performed to map the locations of all charges including distances between charges and the directions of all dipole axis in deuterium. All attracting and repelling Coulomb binding forces were then calculated. The compound of these forces is the net binding force holding the proton and the neutron together in a deuterium atom. This compound net binding force, also known as strong force, is a short reach force which upon forced separation between the proton and the neutron goes to zero before turning into a repelling force. Integrating the compound binding force over the distance between maximum strong force and the attraction/repulsion cross over point yields the total binding energy of deuterium.
The binding energy of deuterium calculated as described and illustrated above corresponds within 1% to published values. For the full calculation of this binding energy contact the author below.
Neutrons and Protons
A mechanism similar to the dipole formation in interacting atoms has been observed in computer simulations involving quarks in interacting neutrons and protons. A neutron consists of one +2/3e up quark and two -1/3e down quarks giving the neutron an overall charge of zero.
Links to neutron gravity simulations:
Charge posturing and Coulomb attraction between 2 neutrons:
Figure 3. Posturing between two neutrons:
Links to strong force simulations:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and strong force between neutrons and protons:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and repulsion between protons:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interaction and attraction prior to transmutation and strong force:
Also see static figures below illustrating the concept of weak force repulsion, cross over point and strong force attraction:
Figure 5: Protons under repulsion.
Figure 6: Protons at the cross over point between repulsion and attraction.
Figure 7: Short reach strong coulomb force attraction
Figure 8: Neutron and proton under strong force
Bengt E Nyman