www.dipole.se © 1996-2016 by Bengt E Nyman                   




Understanding the universe around us is becoming less a question of offering simple and intuitiv explanations and more one of producing mathematical models allowing us to calculate and predict the effects of the mechanisms in question. In a way this is unfortunate in that it contributes to obscure many interesting phenomena from the curious but mathematically untrained human mind. Examples are gravity and strong force.


The Standard Model of physics today uses two models to try to get to grips with gravity. One is a combination of Space Time and Relativity, both of which are difficult to fit into an intuitiv context.

The other one is the Graviton, a fictitious particle which supposedly adds gravity to certain other particles.

Neither of these concepts claim to offer an understanding of the mechanism, but attempts to provide the mathematics required to deal with it.


There is certainly a justification in packaging yet unexplained phenomena into mathematical concepts allowing limited scientific processing though lacking a practical connection to how we humans see the world. The challenge is to be willing to accept a more indepth and satisfying understanding of very complex phenomena when that knowledge becomes available.


In time our perception of particles is due to give way for a more dynamic set of energy constellations of more or less stable nests of complex, closed loop, standing waves with characteristics defined by their complexity, content and lifespan.


In 1964 physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the quark model, detailing the content inside protons and neutrons to include electrically charged sub particles named up- and down-quarks. Protons and neutrons can consequently be modeled as triangular formations with electrically charged regions, even if in case of the neutron the sum of the -1/3, -1/3 and +2/3e electrically charged regions equals zero.


According to Coulombs law the force between two electrical charges is the product of the electrical charges divided by the square of the distance between them. F=ke(q1 x q2)/r^2


The following deals with the subjects of coulomb attraction including strong force as a consequence of the electrical charges present in quarks and electrons which make up protons as well as neutrons, and which have the ability to respond to external electrical charges.





          The following presents a study of forces and motions of atoms and particles as a result of coulomb forces between charged constituents in quarks, electrons, protons and neutrons.


This study came about as a result of experimental computer simulations of coulomb forces and interactions between protons and electrons in hydrogen atoms as well as between quarks in protons and neutrons. The simulations showed a weak but consistent and robust attraction between particles essentially irrespective of simulation parameters imposed on the particles.


Coulomb forces between two hydrogen atoms are both attracting and repelling. The separately computed individual forces are large but essentially cancel each other except for resulting in a weak, attracting compound force. The same was observed between sets of quarks in protons and neutrons. It was concluded that because of the electrostatic elasticity between protons and electron orbitals in atoms, and between individual quarks in protons and neutrons, the strong coulomb forces results in small shifts in the location of the charges, in turn resulting in the polarization and the weak, attracting compound force seen in the simulations.


The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software. The simulations shown use simple, electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not attempt to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond coulomb attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.


The diagram below shows two hydrogen atoms and illustrates the mechanism which produces a weak, attracting coulomb composite force between free atoms. The mechanism shown involves four coulomb force vectors between the two atoms. Two are attracting and two are repelling. Each proton attracts the electron of the other atom while also repelling the proton in the other atom. The four forces result is a shift of the two electron orbitals in relation to their protons, producing a conditional dipole consisting of the center of effort of the electron versus the location of the proton in each atom.


As a consequence of the coulomb forces, attracting charges stretch toward each other, while repelling charges push apart. Based on Coulomb's law the result is a slight advantage to the sum of attracting forces over the sum of repelling forces, such that the resulting force balance always yields a small, attracting net force between the atoms.


See figure 1 and associated conceptual calculation below.



Links to Hydrogen simulations


Charge posturing, dipole formation and coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms:

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.





The coulomb dipole

Mathematical evidence of coulomb dipole gravity


Figure 1. Conceptual, arbitrary example of conditional polarization according to Coulomb's law:

Attraction = ke* q^2* (/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2)

= ke* q^2* (1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1)

= ke* q^2* (1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)

= ke* q^2* (0.06101418)

= ke* 0.061q^2


As can be seen in the result of the calculation above, the coulomb interaction between two atoms always yields a small, positive attracting force between the atoms.



Calculation of external coulomb dipole gravity force, internal reaction force and dipole offset (x) based on external coulomb force = internal coulomb force between two hydrogen atoms 1*10^-10 meter apart.





e = 1.60217662*10^-19

r = 10^-10




K = 8.98755178787*10^9

e = 1.60217662*10^-19

R = 5.291772*10^-11


K*e^2 (1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - K*e^2 (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0

K*e^2 [(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2)] = 0

(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0


(1/(10^-10 - x)^2 + 1/(10^-10 + x)^2 - (2/10^-18) - (1/(5.291772*10^-11 - x)^2 - 1/(5.291772*10^-11 + x)^2)= 0


Rational x = 7.1789*10^-12 meter

Compare Bohr radius R = 5.291*10^-11 meter

x in this case = 13.56% of Bohr radius


Coulomb's law as cited above is not accurate for overlapping or moving charges. Therefore a factor modifying and correcting the constant K in the formula for Coulomb's law must be applied. In this case the correction factor has been calculated to achive known Newton mass gravitation between the two hydrogen atoms.


Calculated correction factor = 4.02941*10^-37


External coulomb force = Correction*4.63997*10^-8 = 4.02941*10^-37*4.63997*10^-8 = 1.86963*10^-44 Newton

Internal coulomb reaction force = Correction*4.63993*10^-8 = 4.02941*10^-37*4.63993*10^-8 = 1.86962*10^-44 Newton

Links to coulomb dipole gravity simulations

Simulation evidence of coulomb dipole gravity


Charge posturing, dipole formation and coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms.


The moving red dot in the simulations below indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.

The first simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in space. Observe the coulomb attraction as being the only form of gravity present, pulling the two atoms toward each other.




The second simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in vacuum but in earth gravity.

Notice that initially the lower atom appears not to move because the downward earth gravity happens to be identical to upward atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity.

Also notice as the distance between the atoms becomes shorter how the lower atom starts accelerating toward the upper atom as the atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity overcomes the downward earth gravity.

Finally, as the two atoms contact each other they join in a final descent toward earth due to atoms to earth coulomb gravity.



Multiple Body Attractions


Each electrically charged body reacts to each and every charge in its environment. In case of for example three hydrogen atoms, the dipole formation of each atom becomes the result of the response to the charges in both adjacent atoms. The proton in each atom is attracted to both adjacent electrons and repelled by both adjacent protons, while the electron in the same atom is attracted to both adjacent protons and repelled by both adjacent electrons.


The vector diagram below shows all twelve coulomb force vectors involved. The size of the individual forces are determined by Coulomb's law. The individual force vectors for each atom point in different directions. The composite,

resultant vector determines the final force acting on the body. In this case the resultant points between the two adjacent atoms and describes the direction of the compound dipole offset and the compound force on said atom.


In case of more bodies in the environment there are additional individual force vectors, the composite of which determines the direction of the composite dipole axis and the composite force on that body.

Links to multiple body simulations:


Charge Posturing, dipole formation and coulomb attraction between 3 hydrogen atoms.

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.






          Neutrons and Protons

          A mechanism similar to the dipole formation in interacting atoms has been observed in computer simulations involving quarks in interacting neutrons and protons. A neutron consists of one +2/3e up quark and two -1/3e down quarks giving the neutron an overall charge of zero.


Links to neutron gravity simulations:


Charge posturing and coulomb attraction between 2 neutrons:







Neutron Attraction

Figure 3. Posturing between two neutrons:

Quantitative verification of coulomb dipole gravity


Dipole elongation and the atomic clock.


An atomic clock runs 30 microseconds per day slower at earths surface than it does in GPS satellite orbit. This corresponds to a relative error of 3.472*10^-10.

A Hydrogen atomic clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency medium. In gravity free space a hydrogen atom is externally neutral while the electron orbit is centered around the proton. In earth gravity a hydrogen atom is slightly elongated into a dipole where the center of the electron orbit is offset from the center of charge of the proton. This slows the frequency of the electron orbit. Knowing the coulomb attraction force between proton and electron in a hydrogen atom, as well as the coulomb dipole gravity between the hydrogen atom and earth we can calculate the expected orbital disturbance and associated orbital frequency reduction of the electron in the hydrogen atom while in earth gravity.


1. Hydrogen atom centering force:


This is the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom according to Coulombs law.


F1 = K(e*e)/r^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 coulombs

r = Bohr's radius = 5.29×10^-11 m

F1 = 4.357*10^20 N


2. Dipole gravity distraction force:


This calculates the net dipole elongation force acting on the hydrogen atom.


F2 = K(n*e*e)/L^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 coulombs

n = The dipole mass of earth divided by the dipole mass of one proton = (5.972*10^24) / (1.673*10^-27)

L = The distance between the hydrogen atom and the integrated center of effort of the dipole mass in earth, which is is at the center of the earth = the radius of the earth = 6378*10^3 m


F2 = 1.468*10^11 N


Assuming a linear relationship between relative dipole elongation force and relative hydrogen clock frequency, the error in clock frequency at the surface of the earth caused by coulomb dipole gravity should be:


F2 / F1 = (1.468*10^11)/(4.357*10^20) = 3.369*10^-10


The atomic clock error to be expected at ground level, calculated using the effects of coulomb polarization corresponds within 0.103*10^-10 to observed values.


          Strong force



Strong force is the result of a multitude of competing coulomb charge force vectors. These forces are both attracting and repelling and the distances between the participating charges vary, why the strength of individual force vectors are specific to each pair of interacting charges.


A Proton consists of a group of three quarks, two +2/3 up quarks and one -1/3 down quark. The proton charge is therefore +1. Protons consequently normally repel each other.


Links to strong force simulations:


Quark posturing, coulomb interactions and strong force between neutrons and protons:






Quark posturing, coulomb interactions and repulsion between protons:










Quark posturing, coulomb interaction and attraction prior to transmutation and strong force:






Also see static figures below illustrating the concept of strong force repulsion, cross over point and strong force attraction:


Figure 5: Protons under repulsion.

Figure 6: Protons at the cross over point between repulsion and attraction.

Figure 7: Short reach strong coulomb force attraction

Figure 8: Neutron and proton under strong force


Quantitative verification of coulomb dipole strong force


Deuterium binding energy


As a second method to quantify the expected consequences of coulomb polarization, computer simulations were performed to map the locations of all charges, the distances between charges and the directions of all dipole axis in deuterium. All attracting and repelling coulomb binding forces were then calculated. The compound of these forces is the net binding force holding the proton and the neutron together in a deuterium atom. This compound net binding force, also known as strong force, is a short reach force which upon forced separation between the proton and the neutron goes to zero before turning into a repelling force. Integrating the compound binding force over the distance between maximum strong force and the attraction/repulsion cross over point yields the total binding energy of deuterium.

The binding energy of deuterium calculated as described and illustrated above corresponds within 1% to published values.

Bengt E Nyman 1996-2016