www.dipole.se © 1996-2017 by Bengt E Nyman

Last updated 10 December 2017





The following article deals with the subjects of gravity and strong-force, and specifically with the mechanism in particle physics which causes gravity and strong-force.


Work by Albert Einstein and others including Space Time, General Relativity and Special Relativity explain the effects of time, velocity, acceleration and gravity in space, but does not offer a satisfying explanation for the cause of gravity.

Attempts have been made to turn the effect of gravity into a cause of gravity resulting in popular but circular arguments. Modern physics, including the Standard Model, acknowledges the lack of a scientifically satisfying explanation for the cause of gravity.


There is certainly a justification in packaging yet unexplained phenomena into fictitious place holder particles or mathematical concepts allowing limited scientific processing though lacking a practical connection to how we humans see the world, as long as we are willing to accept a more indepth and satisfying understanding of these phenomena when that knowledge becomes available.


In 1964 physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the quark model, detailing the content inside protons and neutrons to include electrically charged sub particles named up- and down-quarks. Protons and neutrons can consequently be modeled as triangular formations with electrically charged regions, even if in case of the neutron the sum of the -1/3e, -1/3e and +2/3e electrically charged regions equals zero.


According to Coulombs law the force between two electrical charges is the product of the electrical charges divided by the square of the distance between them. F=ke(q1 x q2)/r^2


Today the consequences of modern particle physics including interactions between electrically charged particles analyzed with contemporary physics simulation software running on powerful computers give us the tool to better understand the phenomena of gravity and strong force.

The following uses particle physics plus the consequences of electrical charges and subsequent Coulomb attraction/repulsion to achieve a contemporary understanding of gravity and strong force.




          The following presents a study of forces and motions of atoms and particles as a result of Coulomb forces between charged constituents in quarks, electrons, protons and neutrons.


This study came about as a result of experimental computer simulations of Coulomb forces and interactions between protons and electrons in hydrogen atoms as well as between quarks in protons and neutrons. The simulations showed a weak but consistent and robust attraction between particles essentially irrespective of simulation parameters imposed on the particles.


Coulomb forces between two hydrogen atoms are both attracting and repelling. The separately computed individual forces are large but essentially cancel each other except for resulting in a weak, attracting compound force. The same was observed between sets of quarks in protons and neutrons. It was concluded that because of the electrostatic elasticity between protons and electron orbitals in atoms, and between individual quarks in protons and neutrons, the strong Coulomb forces results in small shifts in the location of the charges, in turn resulting in the polarization and the weak, attracting compound force seen in the simulations.


The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software. The simulations shown use simple, electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not attempt to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond coulomb attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.


The diagram below shows two hydrogen atoms and illustrates the mechanism which produces a weak, attracting Coulomb composite force between free atoms. The mechanism shown involves four Coulomb force vectors between the two atoms. Two are attracting and two are repelling. Each proton attracts the electron of the other atom while also repelling the proton in the other atom. The four forces result is a shift of the two electron orbitals in relation to their protons, producing a conditional dipole consisting of the center of effort of the electron versus the location of the proton in each atom.


As a consequence of the Coulomb forces, attracting charges stretch toward each other, while repelling charges push apart. Based on Coulomb's law the result is a slight advantage to the sum of attracting forces over the sum of repelling forces, such that the resulting force balance always yields a small, attracting net force between the atoms. See figure 1 and associated conceptual calculation below.


Gravity waves


Recent observations and measurements suggest that quantitative changes in gravity between bodies in space travel with the speed of light. The measurements furthermore confirm the transient, single chirp nature of the change in gravity between two bodies when the mass of one of them suddenly changes by an explosive conversion from mass to energy. A body in space is tied to all other bodies in space through strings of gravity with strengths inversely proportional to the square of respective distances. A change in mass of one body consequently permeates with the speed of light through all its gravity strings to all surrounding bodies in space.


The Coulomb dipole model of gravity described below is based on contemporary particle physics and supplements quantum physics and string theory without creating the conceptual conflict that is experienced with the idea of "space time" as a cause of gravity.


Links to Hydrogen gravity simulations


Charge posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms:

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.





The Coulomb dipole

Mathematical evidence of Coulomb dipole gravity


Figure 1. Conceptual, arbitrary example of conditional polarization according to Coulomb's law:

Attraction = ke* q^2* (/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2)

= ke* q^2* (1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1)

= ke* q^2* (1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)

= ke* q^2* (0.06101418)

= ke* 0.061q^2


As can be seen in the result of the calculation above, the Coulomb interaction between two atoms always yields a small, positive attracting force between the atoms.



Calculation of external Coulomb force, internal Coulomb reaction force and dipole offset (x) based on external Coulomb force = internal Coulomb reaction force associated with two hydrogen atoms 1*10^-10 meter apart.





e = 1.60217662*10^-19

r = 10^-10




K = 8.98755178787*10^9

e = 1.60217662*10^-19

R = 5.291772*10^-11


K*e^2 (1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - K*e^2 (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0

K*e^2 [(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2)] = 0

(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0


(1/(10^-10-x)^2 + 1/(10^-10+x)^2 - (2/10^-18) - (1/(5.291772*10^-11-x)^2 - 1/(5.291772*10^-11+x)^2)= 0


x = 7.1789*10^-12 meter

Compare Bohr radius R = 5.291*10^-11 meter

x in this case = 13.56% of Bohr radius


External Coulomb force = 1.86963*10^-44 Newton

Internal Coulomb reaction force = 1.86962*10^-44 Newton


Effective charge


A hydrogen atom uneffected by external influences is centered to where the center of the electron orbital coincides with the center of charge of the proton. The compound charge of this atom = 0. However, when in the proximity of other charges, including other atoms, an atom becomes polarized to where the center of the electron orbital does not coincide with the center of charge of the proton. A polarized atom acts as a dipole with a very low effective positive charge at one end and the corresponding negative charge at the other end.


Calculating the effective dipole charge (e) of two hydrogen dipoles under coulomb dipole gravity:


K*e^2/r^2 = G*m^2/r^2


K = 8.98755178787*10^9

G = 6.674*10^-11

m = 1.6737236*10^-27

e^2 = G*m^2/K = 6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2

e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2]/8.98755178787*10^9

e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*2.80127169*10^-54)]/8.98755178787*10^9

e^2 = 18.69567598*10^-65/8.98755178787*10^9

e^2 = 2.080*10^-74

e = 1.442*10^-37 Coulomb


Compare this to the charge of the proton (or electron):


1.60217662*10^-19 Coulomb


As can be seen from the above, the effective dipolar charge of a hydrogen atom dipole is in this case a miniscule portion of the charge of any of the two constituents, the proton and the electron:


1.442*10-37 Coulomb / 1.60217662*10^-19 Coulomb = 9.000*10^-19 of the charge of a proton.


The effective charge and the subsequent force of gravity are consequently very weak compared to the charges and forces at work in for example strong force.

Links to Coulomb dipole gravity simulations:

Charge posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms.


The moving red dot in the simulations below indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.

The first simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in space. Observe the Coulomb attraction as being the only form of gravity present, pulling the two atoms toward each other.




The second simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in vacuum but in earth gravity.

Notice that initially the lower atom appears not to move because the downward earth gravity happens to be identical to upward atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity.

Also notice as the distance between the atoms becomes shorter how the lower atom starts accelerating toward the upper atom as the atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity overcomes the downward earth gravity.

Finally, as the two atoms contact each other they join in a final descent toward earth due to atoms to earth Coulomb gravity.



Multiple Body Attractions


Each electrically charged body reacts to each and every charge in its environment. In case of for example three hydrogen atoms, the dipole formation of each atom becomes the result of the response to the charges in both adjacent atoms. The proton in each atom is attracted to both adjacent electrons and repelled by both adjacent protons, while the electron in the same atom is attracted to both adjacent protons and repelled by both adjacent electrons.


The vector diagram below shows all twelve Coulomb force vectors involved. The size of the individual forces are determined by Coulomb's law. The individual force vectors for each atom point in different directions. The composite, resultant vector determines the final force acting on the body. In this case the resultant points between the two adjacent atoms and describes the direction of the compound dipole offset and the compound force on said atom.


In case of more bodies in the environment there are additional individual force vectors, the composite of which determines the direction of the composite dipole axis and the composite force on that body.

Links to multiple body simulations:


Charge Posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 3 hydrogen atoms.

The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.






          Neutrons and Protons

          A mechanism similar to the dipole formation in interacting atoms has been observed in computer simulations involving quarks in interacting neutrons and protons. A neutron consists of one +2/3e up quark and two -1/3e down quarks giving the neutron an overall charge of zero.


Links to neutron gravity simulations:


Charge posturing and Coulomb attraction between 2 neutrons:







Neutron Attraction

Figure 3. Posturing between two neutrons:

Quantitative verification of Coulomb dipole gravity


Dipole elongation and the atomic clock.


An atomic clock runs 30 microseconds per day slower at earths surface than it does in GPS satellite orbit. This corresponds to a relative error of 3.472*10^-10.

A Hydrogen atomic clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency medium. In gravity free space a hydrogen atom is externally neutral while the electron orbit is centered around the proton. In earth gravity a hydrogen atom is slightly elongated into a dipole where the center of the electron orbit is offset from the center of charge of the proton. This slows the frequency of the electron orbit. Knowing the Coulomb attraction force between proton and electron in a hydrogen atom, as well as the Coulomb dipole gravity between the hydrogen atom and earth we can calculate the expected orbital disturbance and associated orbital frequency reduction of the electron in the hydrogen atom while in earth gravity.


1. Hydrogen atom centering force:


This is the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom according to Coulombs law.


F1 = K(e*e)/r^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs

r = Bohr's radius = 5.29×10^-11 m

F1 = 4.357*10^20 N


2. Dipole gravity distraction force:


This calculates the net dipole elongation force acting on the hydrogen atom.


F2 = K(n*e*e)/L^2

K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2

e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs

n = The dipole mass of earth divided by the dipole mass of one proton = (5.972*10^24) / (1.673*10^-27)

L = The distance between the hydrogen atom and the integrated center of effort of the dipole mass in earth, which is is at the center of the earth = the radius of the earth = 6378*10^3 m


F2 = 1.468*10^11 N


Assuming a linear relationship between relative dipole elongation force and relative hydrogen clock frequency, the error in clock frequency at the surface of the earth caused by Coulomb dipole gravity should be:


F2 / F1 = (1.468*10^11)/(4.357*10^20) = 3.369*10^-10


The atomic clock error to be expected at ground level, calculated using the effects of Coulomb polarization corresponds within 0.103*10^-10 to observed values.


          Strong force



Strong force is the result of a multitude of competing Coulomb charge force vectors. These forces are both attracting and repelling and the distances between the participating charges vary, why the strength of individual force vectors are specific to each pair of interacting charges.


A Proton consists of a group of three quarks, two +2/3 up quarks and one -1/3 down quark. The proton charge is therefore +1. Protons consequently normally repel each other.


Links to strong force simulations:


Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and strong force between neutrons and protons:






Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and repulsion between protons:










Quark posturing, Coulomb interaction and attraction prior to transmutation and strong force:






Also see static figures below illustrating the concept of strong force repulsion, cross over point and strong force attraction:


Figure 5: Protons under repulsion.

Figure 6: Protons at the cross over point between repulsion and attraction.

Figure 7: Short reach strong coulomb force attraction

Figure 8: Neutron and proton under strong force


Quantitative verification of Coulomb dipole strong force


Deuterium binding energy


As a second method to quantify the expected consequences of Coulomb polarization, computer simulations were performed to map the locations of all charges, the distances between charges and the directions of all dipole axis in deuterium. All attracting and repelling Coulomb binding forces were then calculated. The compound of these forces is the net binding force holding the proton and the neutron together in a deuterium atom. This compound net binding force, also known as strong force, is a short reach force which upon forced separation between the proton and the neutron goes to zero before turning into a repelling force. Integrating the compound binding force over the distance between maximum strong force and the attraction/repulsion cross over point yields the total binding energy of deuterium.

The binding energy of deuterium calculated as described and illustrated above corresponds within 1% to published values.


The full and lengthy calculation of this binding energy is left out of this article to reduce the length of the article.


For comments or questions about this article please feel free to contact the author below.


Bengt E Nyman 1996-2017