The following article deals with the mechanism in particle physics which causes gravity and strong-force. Though the effect of particle spin is crucial to the transfer of forces of gravity it is not critical to the understanding of the basic net Coulomb force mechanism of gravity. Therefore the effects and significance of particle spin is introduced as it relates to particle entanglement in the second to last paragraph of this article pointing to similarities between gravity and entanglement.
Work by Albert Einstein and others including Spacetime, Special Relativity and General Relativity attempts to offer mathematics to deal with the effects of velocity, acceleration, time and gravity in space, but does not offer a satisfying explanation for the cause of gravity.
Attempts have also been made to turn the effect of gravity into a cause for gravity resulting in popular but circular arguments such as spacetime. Modern physics, including the Standard Model, acknowledges the lack of a scientifically satisfying explanation for the cause of gravity compatible with other branches of physics.
In 1964 physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig proposed the quark model, detailing the content inside protons and neutrons to include electrically charged sub particles named up- and down-quarks. Protons and neutrons can consequently be modeled as triangular formations with electrically charged regions, even if in case of the neutron the sum of the -1/3e, -1/3e and +2/3e electrically charged regions equals zero.
According to Coulombs law the force between two electrical charges is the product of the electrical charges divided by the square of the distance between them. F=ke(q1 x q2)/r^2
Today powerful computers and contemporary physics simulation software give us the tools to analyze, illustrate and understand the phenomena of gravity and strong force.
For a practical application of the findings described below, please refer to the last section about harvesting Coulomb binding energy.
The following presents a study of forces and motions of atoms and particles as a result of Coulomb forces between charged constituents in quarks, electrons, protons and neutrons.
This study came about as a result of experimental computer simulations of Coulomb forces and interactions between protons and electrons in hydrogen atoms as well as between quarks in protons and neutrons. The simulations showed a weak but consistent and robust attraction between particles essentially irrespective of simulation parameters imposed on the particles.
Coulomb forces between two hydrogen atoms are both attracting and repelling. The separately computed individual forces are large but essentially cancel each other except for resulting in a weak, attracting compound force. The same was observed between sets of quarks in protons and neutrons. It was concluded that because of the electrostatic elasticity between protons and electron orbitals in atoms, and between individual quarks in protons and neutrons, the strong Coulomb forces results in small shifts in the location of the charges, in turn resulting in the polarization and the weak, attracting compound force seen in the simulations.
The simulations presented below are performed in mathematically correct physics simulation software. The simulations shown use simple, electrically charged bodies to represent electrically charged particles using known mass and charge of the particles in question. The simulations do not attempt to reflect any nuclear interactions beyond coulomb attraction and repulsion between simulated particles.
As a consequence of the Coulomb forces, attracting charges pull together, slightly reducing their distance and increasing the force between them, while repelling charges push apart, slightly increasing their distance and decreasing the force between them. Based on Coulomb's law the result bacomes a slight advantage to the sum of attracting forces over the sum of repelling forces, such that the resulting force balance always yields a small, attracting net force between the atoms.
Transmission of gravity
A body in space is gravitationally pulled toward the center of graviy of the matter in space around it. A major change in mass of any one body in the surrounding affects the magnitude and location of this center of gravity, resulting in the corresponding shift in strength and direction of the gravitational pull between the body and the center of gravity of its surrounding.
Recent observations and measurements suggest that quantitative changes in gravity between bodies in space travel with the speed of light. The measurements furthermore confirm the transient, single chirp nature of the change in gravity between bodies when the mass of one of them suddenly changes by an explosive conversion from mass to energy. Ligo and other laboratories use sensitive, directional eartquake detectors to quantify and locate the sources of these changes.
Because of the spin of charges, particles and dipoles, the transmission of gravity is electromagnetic. A body of mass inside another body, conductive or not, can not be shielded from gravity.
Links to Hydrogen gravity simulations
Charge posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms:
The moving red dot indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.
Coulomb electric gravity
Figure 1. Conceptual example of conditional polarization according to Coulomb's law:
Attraction = ke* q^2* (/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2)
= ke* q^2* (1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1)
= ke* q^2* (1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)
= ke* q^2* (0.06101418)
= ke* 0.061q^2
As can be seen in the result above, the Coulomb interaction between two atoms always yields a small, positive attracting force between the atoms.
Calculation of dipole offset distance X between positive and negative charges in one of the atoms when 1*10^-10 meter apart above.
e = 1.60217662*10^-19
r = 10^-10
K = 8.98755178787*10^9
e = 1.60217662*10^-19
R = 5.291772*10^-11
K*e^2 (1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - K*e^2 (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0
K*e^2 [(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2)] = 0
(1/(r - x)^2 + 1/(r + x)^2 - 2/r^2) - (1/(R - x)^2 - 1/(R + x)^2) = 0
(1/(10^-10-x)^2 + 1/(10^-10+x)^2 - (2/10^-18) - (1/(5.291772*10^-11-x)^2 - 1/(5.291772*10^-11+x)^2)= 0
Answer: Dipole offset distance above: X = 7.1789*10^-12 meter
(Check: External Coulomb force = 1.86963*10^-44 Newton)
(Internal Coulomb reaction force = 1.86962*10^-44 Newton)
Coulomb dipole gravity between the two atoms = 1.8696*10^-44 Newton
Calculation of Newton gravity between two hydrogen atoms 1*10^-10 meter apart.
F = G*(m1*m2)/r^2
F = 6.674*10^-11(1.67 x 10^-27)^2/(1*10^-10)^2
F = 1.86131*10^-44 Newton
Gravity according to Newton between the same two atoms = 1.8613*10^-44 Newton
Consequently, gravity according to Newton can be explained by net Coulomb dipole attraction !
The difference in the third decimal is most likely the result of approximating the electron orbital as circular when in reality it is slightly eliptical. The correlation between Newton gravity and Coulomb electric gravity is complete and significant. I am suggesting that gravity discovered by Isaac Newton in 1687 is caused by Coulomb forces discovered by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb in 1785, missunderstood by Albert Einstein in 1905 but shed new light upon by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964 to finally be demonstrated by the undersigned in computer simulations in 1996.
A hydrogen atom uneffected by external influences is centered to where the center of the electron orbital coincides with the center of charge of the proton. The compound charge of this atom = 0. However, when in the proximity of other charges, including other atoms, an atom becomes polarized to where the center of the electron orbital does not coincide with the center of charge of the proton. A polarized atom acts as a dipole with a very low effective positive charge at one end and the corresponding negative charge at the other end.
Calculating the effective dipole charge (e) of two hydrogen dipoles under Coulomb electric gravity:
K*e^2/r^2 = G*m^2/r^2
K = 8.98755178787*10^9
G = 6.674*10^-11
m = 1.6737236*10^-27
e^2 = G*m^2/K = 6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2
e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*(1.6737236*10^-27)^2]/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = [6.674*10^-11*2.80127169*10^-54)]/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = 18.69567598*10^-65/8.98755178787*10^9
e^2 = 2.080*10^-74
e = 1.442*10^-37 Coulomb
Compare this to the charge of the proton (or electron):
As can be seen from the above, the effective charge of a hydrogen atom dipole is in this case a miniscule portion of the charge of any of the two constituents, the proton and the electron:
1.442*10^-37 Coulomb / 1.60217662*10^-19 Coulomb = 9.000*10^-19 of the charge of a proton.
The effective charge and the subsequent force of gravity are consequently very weak compared to the charges and forces at work in for example strong force.
Links to Coulomb dipole gravity simulations:
Charge posturing, dipole formation and Coulomb attraction between 2 hydrogen atoms.
The moving red dot in the simulations below indicates the direction of the dipole axis from the proton to the center of charge of the electron orbital.
The first simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in space. Observe the Coulomb attraction as being the only form of gravity present, pulling the two atoms toward each other.
The second simulation shows two hydrogen atoms in vacuum but in earth gravity.
Notice that initially the lower atom appears not to move because the downward earth gravity happens to be identical to upward atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity.
Also notice as the distance between the atoms becomes shorter how the lower atom starts accelerating toward the upper atom as the atom to atom coulomb dipole gravity overcomes the downward earth gravity.
Finally, as the two atoms contact each other they join in a final descent toward earth due to atoms to earth Coulomb gravity.
Neutrons and Protons
A mechanism similar to the dipole formation in interacting atoms has been observed in computer simulations involving quarks in interacting neutrons and protons. A neutron consists of one +2/3e up quark and two -1/3e down quarks giving the neutron an overall charge of zero.
Links to neutron gravity simulations:
Charge posturing and Coulomb attraction between 2 neutrons:
Figure 3. Posturing between two neutrons:
Coulomb dipole gravity, dipole elongation and the atomic clock.
An atomic clock runs 30 microseconds per day slower at earths surface than it does in GPS satellite orbit. This corresponds to a relative error of 3.472*10^-10.
A Hydrogen atomic clock uses hydrogen atoms as a frequency medium. In gravity free space a hydrogen atom is externally neutral while the electron orbit is centered around the proton. In earth gravity a hydrogen atom is slightly elongated into a dipole where the center of the electron orbit is offset from the center of charge of the proton. This slows the frequency of the electron orbit. Knowing the Coulomb attraction force between proton and electron in a hydrogen atom, as well as the Coulomb dipole gravity between the hydrogen atom and earth we can calculate the expected orbital disturbance and associated orbital frequency reduction of the electron in the hydrogen atom while in earth gravity.
1. Hydrogen atom centering force:
This is the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton in the hydrogen atom according to Coulombs law.
F1 = K(e*e)/r^2
K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2
e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs
r = Bohr's radius = 5.29×10^-11 m
F1 = 4.357*10^20 N
2. Dipole gravity distraction force:
This calculates the net dipole elongation force acting on the hydrogen atom.
F2 = K(n*e*e)/L^2
K = 8.99×109 N m2 C^-2
e = 1.60217662 × 10^-19 Coulombs
n = The dipole mass of earth divided by the dipole mass of one proton = (5.972*10^24) / (1.673*10^-27)
L = The distance between the hydrogen atom and the integrated center of effort of the dipole mass in earth, which is is at the center of the earth = the radius of the earth = 6378*10^3 m
F2 = 1.468*10^11 N
Assuming a linear relationship between relative dipole elongation force and relative hydrogen clock frequency, the error in clock frequency at the surface of the earth caused by Coulomb dipole gravity should be:
F2 / F1 = (1.468*10^11)/(4.357*10^20) = 3.369*10^-10
The atomic clock error to be expected at ground level, calculated using the effects of Coulomb polarization corresponds within 0.103*10^-10 to observed values. The difference in the last decimal is most likely the result of approximating the electron orbital as circular when in reality it is slightly eliptical.
Other consequences of Coulomb dipole attraction
Strong force is the result of a multitude of competing Coulomb charge force vectors. These forces are both attracting and repelling and the distances between the participating charges vary, determining the strength of individual force vectors specific to each pair of interacting charges.
A Proton consists of a group of three quarks, two +2/3 up quarks and one -1/3 down quark. The proton charge is therefore +1. Protons consequently normally repel each other.
Links to strong force simulations:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and strong force between neutrons and protons:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interactions and repulsion between protons:
Quark posturing, Coulomb interaction and attraction prior to transmutation and strong force:
Also see static figures below illustrating the concept of strong force repulsion, cross over point and strong force attraction:
Figure 5: Protons under repulsion.
Figure 6: Protons at the cross over point between repulsion and attraction.
Figure 7: Short reach strong coulomb force attraction
Figure 8: Neutron and proton under strong force
Deuterium binding energy
As a third method to quantify the expected consequences of Coulomb polarization, computer simulations were performed to map the locations of all charges, distances between charges and the directions of all dipole axis in deuterium. All attracting and repelling Coulomb binding forces were then calculated. The compound of these forces is the net binding force holding the proton and the neutron together in a deuterium atom. This compound net binding force, also known as strong force, is a short reach force which upon forced separation between the proton and the neutron goes to zero before turning into a repelling force. Integrating the compound binding force over the distance between maximum strong force and the attraction/repulsion cross over point yields the total binding energy of deuterium.
The binding energy of deuterium calculated as described and illustrated above corresponds within 1% to published values. For the full calculation of this binding energy contact the author below.
Action at a distance can be used to describe both gravity and entanglement. Gravity and entanglement are both the result of Coulomb forces between two particles. The main difference is the strength of the EM Coulomb link between them. While gravity is caused by the net Coulomb force between dipoles in neutral particles, entanglement is caused by the full Coulomb force between two charged particles. Consequently the Coulomb force link between two entangled particles is 1:(9*10^19) = 1.111*10^18 times stronger than gravity. Take for example the case of two electrons from the same atom and thereby entangled by having become synchronized. Even when we separate these two electrons by a long distance, observations suggest that if we disturb one to change its spin direction, so does the other one though it is seemingly undisturbed and far away except for its strong Coulomb entanglement with its partner particle. They are said to be entangled.
Harvesting Coulomb binding energy
The knowledge about the Coulomb nature and elasticity of strong force has practical implications. It suggests that the strong force bond between neutrons, protons and a larger nucleus have specific natural frequencies defined by the mass of the nucleon and the strong force to the nucleus. These parameters allow us to calculate frequency, vibrational g-force and associated acceleration required to separate an individual nucleon from its main nucleus.
It might consequently be theoretically possible to agitate and break these bonds, thereby releasing the corresponding binding energy in a controlled fashion.
A Coulomb energy harvester would not be a nuclear reactor, would not contain an inventory of radioactive fuel and would not split fuel nuclei into radioactive rest products, but would gradually peel neutrons and protons from the surface of the fuel nuclei releasing Coulomb binding energy in the process. This process mimics that of the natural decay chain taking place inside the Earth. Suitable starting nuclei are Uranium or Thorium and the physical end product of this accelerated decay process is the inactive and stable metal of Lead.
Bengt E Nyman