www.dipole.se © 1996-2015 by Bengt E Nyman                   






          This is a hypothesis which claims that gravity and strong force are the results of composite electrostatic forces between electrical charges in particles and bodies.


The diagram below shows two hydrogen atoms and illustrates the mechanism of dipole formation producing dipole gravity.


The electrons orbiting the protons of the two hydrogen atoms have some freedom to deform their orbits depending on external influences. In the case of the two atoms below, each proton attracts the electron of the other atom while also repelling the proton of the other atom. The result is an offset of both electron orbits in relation to their protons.


The result is that attracting charges move somewhat closer to each other while repulsing charges move slightly further away for each other. Calculations of the effect of this elasticity shows a tiny net increase in the sum of attracting forces compared to repulsing forces.


The nature of the dipole effect and the forces produced are such that they always yield a tiny attracting net force between the two dipoles, particles, atoms or bodies. See arbitrary numerical example below.


Attraction = e^2/0.9^2 + e^2/1.1^2 - e^2/1^2 - e^2/1^2

= e^2(1/0.81 + 1/1.21 - 1/1 - 1/1

= e^2(1.23456790 + 0.82644628 - 1 - 1)

= e^2(0.06101418)

= 0.061e^2


          Calculations using real charges and dimensions of the two hydrogen atoms show that at a distance of 1 x 10^-12 meters between the two hydrogen atoms, the dipole distance of each hydrogen atom would be 3.672300 * 10^-31 meter, which is 6.939 * 10^-21 of the radius of the hydrogen atom, or 4.424 * 10^-18 of the radius of the proton. In other words, the charge shift or dipole distance required is extremely small, even compared to the radius of the proton.


Links to Hydrogen Gravity simulations:


2D Charge Posturing, Dipole formation and Gravity between 2 simulated hydrogen atoms:



2D Charge Posturing, Dipole formation and Gravity between 2 complete hydrogen atoms:



2D Charge Posturing, Dipole formation and Gravity between 2 hydrogen atoms with free quarks:



3D Charge Posturing, Dipole formation and ES Gravity between 2 hydrogen atoms.



Links to Neutron Gravity simulations


2D Charge Posturing and Gravity between 2 neutrons with trapped quarks:



3D Charge Posturing and ES Gravity between 2 neutrons:



          Strong Force


          In today’s Standard Model, Strong Force is considered one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. Strong Force is described as the strongest of the four forces and as having the shortest reach.

The composite dipole hypothesis described below suggests that Strong Force is the result of a multitude of dipole force vectors. These force vectors are both attracting and repelling. The fact that these different dipole forces are based on different dipole distances creates a complex resultant which is highly dependant on the distance between the particles.

Let us start with two free protons placed in the vicinity of each other. Looking closer at the protons we know that they each consist of a group of three quarks. There is one external ES force vector between each quark in one proton and each quark in the other proton, for a total of nine external ES force vectors.

Now let us force these protons closer together. So close that the cheeks of the protons are no further apart than the quarks in one of the protons. At least one of the quarks in proton 1 is now very close to one of the quarks in proton 2. If these close-up quarks are of the same charge it is easy to see that the composite force is likely to be repulsing. Because even if the remaining and more distant quark charges attract each other they are disadvantaged by their longer separation distance. 

However if these nearby charges happen to be attracting each other while the more distant charges repel each other it would appear that the situation could turn out differently.

Simulations made with two different kinds of physics software both show the following:


1.       Two protons placed closely together will repel each other most of the time.

2.       Two protons shot at each other will bounce off and repel each other most of the time.

3.       However, it is occasionally possible to shoot two protons at each other with the right speed and quark positions  so that they latch on to each other, fuse and stay together, held in place by Strong Force. See simulation links below.


          Two protons affect each other with a total of nine ES force vectors. Five of these are repelling and four are attracting. At most distances between the protons these vectors add up to a resultant which is an overwhelmingly repelling force.

However, once two protons come close enough to each other, with the right quark postures, they fuse and latch together with Strong Force.

Strong Force is a conditional resultant force made up of nine force vectors. Strong Force depends on very close distances between attracting constituents to remain positive.

If we could grab two fused protons and start pulling them apart we would find that as we increase the gap between the attracting quarks the Strong Force weakens very quickly. Very soon we would reach the mathematical crossover point where the resultant of the nine ES force vectors becomes zero and where the two protons loose their grip on each other. This is where Strong Force goes to zero, changes its name and transforms into a much weaker, nine component repelling force, which we know as repulsion between similarly charged objects.


3D model of the Proton



2D Repulsion between 2 protons



2D Collision between 2 protons



2D Repulsion between 2 protons



2D Collision between 2 protons



2D Special collision between 2 protons producing Fusion and Strong Force



Please note the very similar initial conditions in the two simulations below;

In the first simulation the two protons are placed just outside the reach of the Strong Force resulting in repulsion between the protons.

In the second simulation the protons are placed just inside the reach of the Strong Force resulting in fusion of the two protons.


3D Charge Posturing and ES repulsion between 2 protons



3D Charge Posturing and ES Strong Force between 2 protons



          Binding Energy, ES Strong Force and Strong Force Reach


          The above proton simulations suggest a specific quark posture between two fused protons. The same posturing is applied to the protons and quarks shown below in an attempt to quantify ES Strong Force and Strong Force Reach:


          The Effective Quark Radius used above expresses the inverse degree of freedom, or posturing space, that the quarks have within the protons.

Please note that this value has been selected to produce a binding energy that matches known proton binding energy. This is done to show that ES attraction/repulsion and subsequent Charge Posturing is theoretically sufficient to cause the mechanism that we call strong force between two protons. It is also done to arrive at an Effective Quark Radius that can be used to test the credibility of this hypothesis in coming examples and calculations.


Strong force in Deuterium


          The atom nucleus of Deuterium consists of one proton and one neutron. As compared to the case of two protons, Deuterium forms readily, is relatively stable and possesses a high binding energy. See link to posturing simulation below:


3D Charge Posturing and ES Strong Force between 1 proton and 1 neutron forming Deuterium;

Close up:



Slow motion:



          The above simulations suggest a specific quark posture between the fused proton and neutron. The posturing is symmetrical and three dimensional. The same posturing is applied to the protons and quarks shown below in two views. Three dimensional design software was used to reconstruct the nucleus of Deuterium in accordance with the simulation results above to establish an accurate nucleus geometry and the 3D quark distances seen below:

          Using the effective quark radius calculated in the case of strong force between two protons we can now test our ES Strong Force hypothesis by calculating the theoretical binding energy in Deuterium and compare it to the known binding energy.


          Note that the ES strong force, or binding force in Deuterium never goes to zero why the integration of the binding energy theoretically can go on for ever. In this case the energy integration is stopped at a distance between proton and neutron where the ES strong force falls below 1/1000 of the contact strong force.

Also note that the theoretically calculated ES Strong Force produces a binding energy which is identical to the known binding energy. This result provides support for the hypothesis that what we call strong force is caused by the complex composite of electro static forces between electrically charged nuclei constituents shown above.

          The Neutron


          The three naked quarks in the neutron are held together by two electrons. The electrons reside at the hub of the triangle of the three quarks, one on each side of the hub. The three naked quarks plus two electrons give the neutron an overall charge of 0.  However, the neutron has three externally exposed constituents with a charge of +2/3e and two with a charge of -1e. These potential ES attachment points play a key role in producing and explaining ES Strong Force and in quantifying ES Binding Energy.


See proposed 3D model of the Neutron in the simulation below:



Gravity, Strong Force, Deuterium and Tritium revisited


          The 3D simulations shown below use the proton and neutron models proposed above.

These simulations show behaviors very similar to those shown earlier using the older models of positively and negatively charged quarks. The difference is that the older models fail to support quantification of known binding energies in larger nuclei, whereas the new models support ES Gravity and ES Strong Force as well as calculation of ES binding energies in larger nuclei.  


Neutron Gravity:



Proton Repulsion:



Proton Strong Force:

Please note the initial position in this simulation resulting in ES attraction and ES strong force compared to the previous simulation where the only slightly different initial position results in ES repulsion.



Formation of Deuterium:



Formation of Tritium:

The naked quarks in the hadrons are all identical but are here shown in different colors to make it easier to identify the original proton and neutron geometries after fusion.


Bengt Nyman 1996-2015